Environmental & Recreational (Non-Market) Values - Value Estimates for the United States

The following summaries of valuation estimates have been compiled from the NOEP Non-Market bibliography database and may be used to begin researching values. Most of the included studies are linked to the relevent papers found in the database. Those without links are references from studies in the database, which are not currently available for review.

The value estimates summaries are organized by activity and asset:

Coastal Beach Value Estimates for the United States
  Author and Date Consumer Surplus/Activity Day1 Study Methodology
Far-Western U.S.
Hawaii Moncur, 1975 $1.60 - $6.25 TC
Western Continental U.S.
California Dornbusch et al., 1986 $11.99 TC
California Dornbusch et al., 1987 $14.85 - $15.81 /trip TC
California Leeworthy et al., 1990 $1.72 - $8.04 CV (four beaches)
California Leeworthy and Wiley, 1993 $12.19, $27.43, $77.61 TC (three beaches)
California King, 2001
King, 2001
$25.78 - $33.72 /household/day TC (during high season)
California Lew and Larson, 2005 $11.13/trip TC, RUM
Gulf-shore Southern U.S.
Florida (both coasts) USACE, 1981 $3.69/trip TC
Florida (both coasts) Curtis and Shows, 1982 $4.48/trip CV
Florida (both coasts) Curtis and Shows, 1984 $8.56/trip CV
Florida (both coasts) Bell, 1986 $3.12 CV
Florida (both coasts) Bell and Leeworthy, 1986 $2.46(residents) - $2.73(tourists) CV
Florida (both coasts) Bell and Leeworthy, 1986 $19.23(residents) - $55.11(tourists) TC
Florida (both coasts) Bell and Leeworthy, 1990 $63.74 TC (tourists; Saltwater Beach use)
Florida (both coasts) Bell, 1992 $2.99 CV (tourists)
Florida (both coasts) Bell and Leeworthy, 1990 $73.84 TC (Saltwater Beach use)
Florida (both coasts) USACE, 1993 $3.24/trip TC
Florida (both coasts) Leeworthy and Wiley, 1994 $22.28-$25.18 and $83.62-$92.67 TC (two beaches)
Florida (both coasts) Leeworthy and Bowker, 1997 $95.85 (winter) - $120.74 (summer) TC (beach use; non-residents)
Southeastern U.S.
North Carolina Bin et al., 2004 revised 2005 $11.98 - $84.49 (mean) TC, RUM
Northeastern U.S.
Delaware Parsons et al., 1999 $0.07 - $12.70/trip* TC, RUM (6 beaches)
Maine Huang and Poor, 2007 $3.61 /household /day* CV, DC (conjoint, fees)
Maryland Parsons et al., 1999 $0.07 - $12.70/trip* TC, RUM (6 beaches)
Massachusetts Hanemann, 1978 $1.04 TC
Massachusetts Binkley and Hanemann, 1978 $7.29 /household/trip CV
Massachusetts Meta Systems, 1985 $20.32 TC (Boston beaches)
Massachusetts McConnell, 1992 $1.05 - $1.70 TC
Massachusetts Kline and Swallow, 1998 $5.36 CV, DC (fees)
New Hampshire Huang and Poor, 2007 $3.61 /household /day* CV, DC (conjoint, fees)
New Jersey Leeworthy and Wiley, 1991 $31.45 TC
New Jersey Parsons et al., 1999 $0.07 - $12.70/trip* TC, RUM (6 beaches)
Rhode Island McConnell, 1977 $1.42 - $6.43 CV (6 beaches)
Rhode Island McConnell and Weaver, 1977 $5.74 CV (working paper)

* Indicates loss due to beach closure
1Consumer Surplus values for one "activity day" unless otherwise noted


Coastal Recreational Fishing Value Estimates for the United States
  Author and Date Consumer Surplus/ Activity Day1 Study Methodology
Far-Western U.S.
Alaska Jones and Stokes, 1987 $4.60 - $33.90 /trip TC, RUM (secondary data only; private boat, rental boat and shore, Halibut, King Salmon, Silver Salmon, other species)
Alaska Wegge et al., 1988 $69.94/trip RUM (secondary data only)
Alaska Hausman et al., 1995 $188.02/trip TC (residents)
Alaska Hamel et al., 2000 $99.39 TC, CV (residents; Salmon, Halibut from private boat)
Alaska Hamel et al., 2000 $119.62 TC, CV (residents and non-residents; Salmon, Halibut from private boat)
Alaska Hamel et al., 2000 $146.14 TC, CV (non-residents; Salmon, Halibut from charter boat)
Western Continental U.S.
California Huppert and Thomson, 1984 $33.54/trip TC (both residents and non-resident; travel valued at 1/3 wage rate)
California Hanemann et al., 1986 $16.21 TC (shore fishing; boat owner)
California Hanemann et al., 1986 $29.57 TC (shore fishing; non-boat owner)
California Wegge et al., 1986 $44.33/trip CV (charter boat; Pacific Mackerel, Kelp Bass, Rockfish)
California Wegge et al., 1986 $24.33 - $43.34 (trips < or = 1 day) TC, (charter boat; boat owner; residents and non-residents)
California Wegge et al., 1986 $30.04 - $96.53 (trips < or = 1 day) TC, (charter boat; non boat owner; residents and non-residents)
California Wegge et al., 1986 $29.55 CV (private boat, rental; residents and non-residents)
California Wegge et al., 1986 $14.78 CV (private boat, shore fishing; residents and non-residents)
California Wegge et al., 1986 $59.10 CV (private boat; residents and non-residents)
California Wegge et al., 1986 $35.30 TC (private boat; owner; residents and non-residents)
California Wegge et al., 1986 $29.10 TC (private boat; non-owner; residents and non-residents)
California Huppert, 1989 $110.41, $242.54, $535.76 / trip TC, (residents; Salmon, Halibut; boat and shore)
California Kling and Herriges, 1995 $10.84 - $21.35 /undefined period Unknown methodology (Shore fishing; residents)
California Kling and Herriges, 1995 $27.46-$44.45 /undefined period Unknown methodology (Off-shore fishing; residents)
Oregon Row, R, 1985 $116.07/trip TC and RUM (secondary data only)
Washington Cruthfield and Schelle, 1978 $55.48 CV (secondary data only)
Washington Row, R, 1985 $100.52/trip TC and RUM (secondary data only)
Gulf-shore Southern U.S.
Florida (both coasts) Bell et al., 1982 $82.90 CV (Residents)
Florida (both coasts) Bell et al., 1982 $61.86 - $77.00 CV (Non-Residents)
Florida (both coasts) Leeworthy, 1990 $81.33/trip TC (secondary data only)
Florida (both coasts) McConnell & Strand, 1994 $113.03-$135.86 TC and RUM (non-residents; secondary data only)
Florida (Gulf coast) Bell, F.W., 1997 $66.70 TC (Residential Status Not Specified)
Florida (East coast) Bell, F.W., 1997 $100.64 TC (Residential Status Not Specified)
Texas Downing and Ozuna, 1996 $60.23-$407.29/trip CV (Residents)
Southeastern U.S.
Georgia McConnell & Strand, 1994 $66.06-$70.12 TC and RUM (non-residents; secondary data only)
North Carolina Norton et al., 1983 $277.15/trip TC (residents; secondary data only)
North Carolina McConnell & Strand, 1994 $111.23-$114.81 TC and RUM (non-residents; secondary data only)
South Carolina McConnell & Strand, 1994 $113.03-$114.44 TC and RUM (non-residents; secondary data only)
South Carolina Bockstael et al., 1986 $97.92 CV (secondary data only)
Virginia Norton et al., 1983 $93.99/trip TC (residents; secondary data only; boat and shore)
Virginia McConnell & Strand, 1994 $64.01-$77.48 TC and RUM (non-residents; secondary data only)
Northeastern U.S.
Connecticut Norton et al., 1983 $207.26/trip TC (residents; secondary data only)
Delaware Norton et al., 1983 $407.29/trip TC (residents; secondary data only; shore fishing)
Delaware McConnell & Strand, 1994 $17.07-$18.51 TC and RUM (non-residents; secondary data only)
Maine Norton et al., 1983 $207.26/trip TC (residents; secondary data only)
Maryland McConnell & Strand, 1994 $44.67-$45.73 TC and RUM (non-residents; secondary data only)
Massachusetts Norton et al., 1983 $207.26/trip TC (residents; secondary data only)
New Hampshire Norton et al., 1983 $207.26/trip TC (residents; secondary data only)
New Jersey Norton et al., 1983 $407.29/trip TC (residents; secondary data only; shore fishing)
New Jersey McConnell & Strand, 1994 $54.03-$56.95 TC and RUM (non-residents; secondary data only)
New York Norton et al., 1983 $407.29/trip TC (residents; secondary data only; shore fishing)
New York McConnell & Strand, 1994 $96.35-$98.31 TC and RUM (non-residents; secondary data only)
Rhode Island Norton et al., 1983 $207.26/trip TC (residents; secondary data only)
Multi-State or Non-specific
DE, FL, GA, MD, NC, NJ, NY, SC, VA McConnell et al., 1993 $215.85 CV (non-residents; secondary data only)

1Consumer Surplus values for one Activity Day unless otherwise noted


Coastal and Marine Wildlife Viewing Value Estimates for the United States
  Author and Date Consumer Surplus/ Activity Day1 Study Methodology
Far-Western U.S.
Alaska McCollum and Miller, 1994 in Colt 2001 Seabirds: $133 - $240
Whales:   $208 - $228
Unreported
Western Continental U.S.
California Hall et al., 2002 $6.78/family visit CV (tidepool visits)
Gulf-shore Southern U.S.
Florida (both coasts) Leeworthy and Bowker, 1997 $108.35 TC (Florida Keys)
Northeastern U.S.
New York Johnston et al., 2002 $63.80 TC
New England (whale watching) Hoagland and Meeks, 2000 $62.50 - $70.40 TC

1Consumer Surplus values for one "activity day" unless otherwise noted


Coastal Scuba Diving Value Estimate for the United States
  Author and Date Consumer Surplus/ Activity Day1 Study Methodology
United States
All US National Parks Kaval and Loomis, 2003 $34.25  
Western Continental U.S.
California Leeworthy and Wiley, 2003 $13.78 (Benefit transfer, Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties)
California Leeworthy and Wiley, 2003 $41.35 - $42.95 (Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary)
California Pendleton 2005 $110/day Ship diving on the Yukon
Pacific Coast Kaval and Loomis, 2003 $55.66  
Gulf-shore Southern U.S.
Gulf of Mexico Roberts et al., 1985 $350.49/year/diver CV (petroleum structures)
Gulf of Mexico Stoll and Ditton, 2002 $121.20/trip (secondary source; artificial reef)
Gulf of Mexico Stoll and Ditton, 2002 $157.20/trip (secondary source; natural reef)
Florida Milon, 1988 $30.02 - $44.22/year/diver CV (fishing and diving on 7 artificial reefs)
Florida Milon, 1989 $4.63 - $131.88/year/diver CV (fishing and diving on ships and steel debris)
Florida Bell et al., 1998 $11.36 TC (ships, reef balls, other structures)
Florida Bell et al., 1998 $3.62 - $4.40(residents); $6.51 - $7.96(visitors) CV (ships, reef balls, other structures)
Florida Leeworthy et al., 2001 $4.02(residents) - $16.16(non-residents) (artificial reef)
Florida Johns et al., 2003 $3.52(residents) - $14.47(visitors) CV (maintain existing artificial reefs)
Texas Ditton and Baker, 1999 $49.53 - $83.48 CV (diving on artificial reefs)
Texas Ditton et al., 2001 $46.52 CV (diving on artificial reefs)
Northeastern U.S.
Northeast Region Kaval and Loomis, 2003 $18.96  

1Consumer Surplus values for one "activity day" unless otherwise noted


Literature Review of Coastal Snorkeling Studies for the United States
  Author and Date Consumer Surplus/ Activity Day1 Study Methodology
United States
All US National Parks Kaval and Loomis, 2003 32.08 (resident and non-resident)
Western Continental U.S.
Pacific Coast Kaval and Loomis, 2003 $31.58  
Gulf-shore Southern U.S.
Florida (both coasts) Leeworthy and Bowker, 1997 $118.96 (resident and non-resident)
Florida (both coasts) Leeworthy et al., 2001 $3.02(resident) - $8.37(non-resident) (artificial reef)
Florida (both coasts) Park et al., 2002 $130.59/trip (resident and non-resident)

1Consumer Surplus values for one "activity day" unless otherwise noted


Environmental Services Value Estimates for the United States
  Author and Date Consumer Surplus1 Asset Valued Study Methodology
Western Continental U.S.
California Rein, 1999 $4,454,718 per year Benefits to society of implementing vegetative buffer strip to protect watershed including flood control, land protection, drinking water, harbor dredging AC, TC, EXP
Gulf-shore Southern U.S.
Louisiana Farber, 1996 $8,437 to $15,763 per acre of wetland wetland CV, HED, TC, EXP
Southeastern U.S.
North Carolina Smith and Crowder, 2005 $2.56 million increase in fishery rents per year 30% reduction in nitrogen loading in watershed productivity method
Non-specific or multi-state
Non-specific meta-analysis Brouwer, et al., 1999 92.6 SDR* 21.5 SDR 52.5 SDR 76.1 SDR flood control, water generation, water quality, wildlife habitat provision CV

* SDR=Special Drawings Rights
1Willingness to Pay (WTP) per year unless otherwise noted


Non-use Value Estimates for the United States
  Author and Date Consumer Surplus1 Asset Valued Study Methodology
Far-Western U.S.
Alaska Carson, et al., 2003 $48 household WTP, $2.8 Billion aggregate lost passive use WTP to prevent an Exxon Valdez type oil spill CV, Damage Assessment Model, Referendum Method
Alaska and rest of U.S Giraud et al, 2002 $40.41 per Alaskan household per year
$61.13 per household for all U.S.
Stellar Sea Lion CV
Western Continental U.S.
Oregon Garber-Yonts et al., 2004 up to $140 annual household WTP WTP protection of coastal salmon and aquatic and riparian habitat CV
California Loomis, 2006 $2.32-$5.81increase per household Increase in WTP for additional 196 (7.58%) sea otters CV, Benefit Transfer
Southeastern U.S.
North Carolina Whitehead, 1992 $10.98 Sea Turtle CV
North Carolina Whitehead, 1992 $14.74 Non-game Coastal Wildlife CV
North Carolina, Virginia Whitehead et al., 1995 $49.46 Non-users WTP for water quality improvements and wildlife habitat in estuarine system CV
Northeastern U.S.
New Jersey Silberman et al., 1992 $9.26 Existence value of beach CV (users and nonusers)
New Jersey Silberman & Klock, 1988 $16.31 (mean bid for one time estimate) Existence value of beach renourishment CV
Maine Kotchen & Reiling, 2000 $26.63 Shortnose Sturgeon CV
Massachusetts Stevens et al., 1991 $7.93 Atlantic Salmon CV
Massachusetts Kaoru, 1993 $19.41 option value
$77.59 existence value
Mean TWTP for water quality improvements in coastal ponds CV
Nonspecific or Multi-state
Nonspecific Samples et al.,1986 $42.84(before viewing educational film) - $57.06 (after viewing film) WTP for Humpback Whale preservation CV

1Willingness to Pay (WTP) per year unless otherwise noted

Key of Study Methodologies
TCTravel Cost Method
RUMRandom Utility Method
CVContingent Valuation Method
ACAvoided Cost Method
HEDHedonic Pricing Method
EXPExpenditure Analysis

updated 29-Sep-2008